- 1 Christopher Columbus
- 2 Who was Christopher Columbus?
- 3 Christopher Columbus Rapist and Killer:
- 4 Christopher Columbus hero or Villian?
- 5 Christopher Columbus as a Villian:
- 6 Christopher Columbus as a Hero:
- 7 Christopher Columbus Childhood & Early Life :
- 8 Real & Full name of Christopher Columbus:
- 9 Christopher Columbus date of Birth:
- 10 Origin of Christopher Columbus & Born Place:
- 11 Christopher Columbus nationality:
- 12 Is Christopher Columbus from Greece?
- 13 Christopher Columbus Portuguese:
- 14 Christopher Columbus Parents:
- 15 Christopher Columbus early education:
- 16 Christopher Columbus Brothers:
- 17 Christopher Columbus Sister:
- 18 Christopher Columbus Wife:
- 19 Christopher Columbus Sons:
- 20 Christopher Columbus Family:
- 21 Christopher Columbus Family
- 22 Voyage Experience:
- 23 Columbus Assumptions:
- 24 Royal Backing and Help:
- 25 King of Portugal Reject His Proposal:
- 26 Christopher Columbus Mistress:
- 27 Real Sponsors Of Christopher Columbus:
- 28 Why did Queen Isabella sponsor Christopher Columbus?
- 29 Christopher Columbus voyages:
- 30 Christopher Columbus First Voyage:
- 31 Christopher Columbus Ships:
- 32 Does Christopher Columbus’s Santa Maria wreck ‘found’ or not?
- 33 First Voyage of Christopher Columbus:
- 34 The beginning of the first voyage:
- 35 Christopher Columbus was a liar:
- 36 Historical Impact of Columbus’ First Voyage:
- 37 Columbus’s first voyage effect on Africa:
- 38 Who discovered America?
- 39 Second Voyage of Christopher Columbus:
- 40 Christopher Columbus’s third voyage:
- 41 Christopher Columbus’s Fourth Voyage:
- 42 Christopher Columbus Death:
- 43 Where Are the Remains of Christopher Columbus?
- 44 Christopher Columbus timeline:
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Christopher Columbus was an Italian explorer, Genoese trader, a colonist who completed four voyages to the Atlantic Ocean under the supervision of Catholic Monarch of Spain. Christopher Columbus was a controversial figure.
Who was Christopher Columbus?
👉 Christopher Columbus is famous due to his discovery of the new world America.
👉 Christopher Columbus was a controversial figure in the history acclaims for centuries as the discoverer of America.
To obtain gold and wealth, to pay off debt, and impress the Queen and King of Spain, he destroyed the Native population massively.
He was an explorer, trader, navigator, and an expert in maritime transportation.
Christopher Columbus was an immensely brilliant and visionary man who navigated across the Atlantic Ocean to discover Asia route.
Birth Sign of Christopher Columbus:
The birth sign of Christopher Columbus is Scorpio.
Christopher Columbus Rapist and Killer:
Sometimes its look unbelievable truth that Christopher Columbus was a homicidal tyrant who initiated tow big crime in the history of the western hemisphere.
In 1492 trade was started with India and so for East but there was the problem that it takes an 8 to 9 month to reach out the East.
Christopher Columbus start work on an idea to find out the new water route through west to reach out to India.
Even he was failed but accidentally he discovered the New World America.
He brought potatoes, tomatoes, corn, and gold back to Spain.
Christopher Columbus introduced new food and culture in Europe and help Europe to grow and regained their population after black death.
Christopher Columbus hero or Villian?
It takes a lot of debate to prove Christopher Columbus hero or villain.
It will never end until to finished all the European who has settled in the New World after Christopher Columbus and “Native Indian” who believed that Christopher Columbus was an invader rapist and genocide killer.
Christopher Columbus was a controversial figure and yes like a coin has two sides.is that he has both qualities and anyone can’t be denied it.
Some untold and uncomfortable fact about Christopher Columbus is given here which reveal the real truth about Christopher Columbus.
Christopher Columbus as a Villian:
👉 Christopher Columbus was a mass murder, megalomaniac person.
👉 Even he deceived and abused with his crew a betrayed his government for his wealth.
👉 Christopher Columbus slaughtered native population massively chopped off their hands, cut their ears to spreads terror and for gold.
👉 Even native greeted his crew with food and comfort. The natives were not weaponized and Christopher Columbus enslaved them.
👉 His crewmen rapped their women, kill their men and enslaved thousands of people.
👉 Christopher Columbus crossed so many lines, he was a tyrant, cruel assistant who has no respect for human life.
👉 He was arrested due to his crimes by his crown and confined in jail.
Here is unexpected description transcribed by Bartolome de las Casas’ “History of the Indies,”
Christopher Columbus as a Hero:
Christopher Columbus is a hero not for someone but millions of people love Christopher Columbus.
They believed that Christopher Columbus is the Father of New World America.
He was the first European who landed on American content (Leif Ericson and his Viking were the first landed on America ).
But definitely, Christopher columns was the first who discovered the New World.
He came back to Spain and told Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand about his new distinctive discovery.
People love him and follow him to get inspiration.
Journey to Discover Asia:
In 1492 he started a new journey to find out the new resources for trade, gold and find out new water route west from Europe to Asia.
But he has failed to do so and stuck in America. His journey started the beginning of centuries of transatlantic conquest and colonization.
He made four voyages in 1492, 1493, 1498 and 1502 toward the Atlantic oceans from Spain in ships.
👉 (1)Santa María (The Holy Mary)
👉 (2)Pinta (The Painted)
👉 (3) Santa Clara (nicknamed the Niña: the Little Girl).
The journey was sponsored by Spinach kingship.
This journey was started to find out a new route to India.
Between 1492 to 1504, he made a total of four voyages toward the Caribbean and South America and credit t goes to Christopher Columbus for opening up the way to America and started the permanent European colonization of America.
Christopher Columbus Childhood & Early Life :
There is no agreed-upon the date that when Christopher Columbus come into the world.
There is doubt in Date of birth of Christopher Columbus.
Most Historians put Christopher Columbus date of birth as earlier 1436 and as late as 1455.
Real & Full name of Christopher Columbus:
The name of Christopher Columbus in English is Christopher Columbus that is driven from the Italian Christophorus Columbus.
His name in Ligurian is Cristòffa Cómbo, in Italian Cristoforo Colombo and in Spanish Cristóbal Colón.
Christopher Columbus date of Birth:
Many of historian claimed that it was 1455.
Mostly agreed that the date birth of Christopher Columbus is between August 25th and October 31, 1451.
Christopher was the oldest boy of his parents.
Origin of Christopher Columbus & Born Place:
Christopher Columbus nationality:
👉 Christopher Columbus belongs to the Republic of Genoa now part of Italy.
👉 After that, he moved to Lisbon and Portugal and after that resettled in Spain and he remained here for the duration of his life.
Is Christopher Columbus from Greece?
This is also another theory by historian and believed that Christopher Columbus may have come from the Island of “Chios” in Greece.
At that time the island of Chios was under the Genoese territory and thus part of Republic Genoa (1346- 156AD).
Columbus kept his journal in Latin and Greek Languages instead of Italian of Republic Genoa.
Because Chios was known at that time red earth/ soil in the south of the island where a large number of Mastic trees and Genoese were known to trade it.
Columbus also writes about the Gum- mastic which was called mastika which was only found in Chios.
Christopher Columbus Portuguese:
Christopher Columbus nationality is a myth and there is great confusion about his nationality.
There is an intense rivalry between Portugal and Spain.
👉 His original name was Salvador Fernandes Zarco.
👉 The only solution to this confusion is the DNA test of Christopher Columbus remains and match them with his son Ferdinand Columbus.
Christopher Columbus Parents:
Christopher Columbus Father and occupation:
👉 His father name was Domenico Colombo Who was Middle – class wool weaver and proprietor too, who worked both in Genoa and Savona.
👉 Domenico Colombo was a keen sailor and loved oceans.
That is transferred to his oldest son Christopher Columbus.
As his father was able yet modest and comfortable living for his family and kindly involved a man who brought his son up with strong Biblical morals.
Christopher Columbus Childhood:
👉 Christopher Columbus helped his father by selling the Cheese on Stand in the market.
👉 At the early age of 10, Christopher was thinking and dreamed to find out the new route for trade.
Christopher Columbus Mother:
👉 Christopher Columbus mother name was “Susanna Fontanarossa” (1435-1489).
👉She belongs to a wealthy Catholic family.
👉 Her family-owned real estate business in Quezee.
Christopher Columbus early education:
The history reveals to know that if a young Christopher even went to school or not.
It is recorded that he was a great intellect in his childhood.
As so he may be illiterate when he left home at the age of 20, still he overcomes the lack of education.
He taught himself many skills that were valuable and important at that time that was
👉 Map Making
👉 Fractional Mathematics
👉 Trading principle
👉 The range of Languages (Spinach, Latin, and Portuguese).
With time, he sailed out of the America where he learned to read and write.
Christopher Columbus Brothers:
Christopher Columbus has four brothers, some of them are famous in history.
1.Bartholomew Columbus :
👉 He was born September 13, 1460, Genoa Italy.
👉 Bartholomew Columbus was also known as Bartolomeo Columbo.
👉 He was the younger brother of Christopher Columbus.
👉 He was an Italian explorer, cartographer, and cosmographer.
👉 He was a collaborator of his brother’s dream project to sail around the world.
👉 He died on December 11, 1514, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic.
2.Giovanni Pellegrino Columbus:
👉 He is the brother of Christopher Columbus.
👉 He was born in 1455 in Genoa Italy.
👉 He died in 1474 Genoa.
3. Giacomo Columbus:
👉 Another brother of Christopher Columbus is Giacomo Columbus. He was known as “Diego”.
👉 He was born in 1468, Genoa Italy.
👉 He died on February 21, 1515, in Seville, Spain.
4.Giovanni Antonio Columbus:
👉 Giovanni Antonio Columbus was born in 1477 in Genoa Italy.
👉 He died in 1540 in Genoa Italy.
Christopher Columbus Sister:
👉 Bianchinetta Columbus was the sister of Christopher Columbus.
👉 She was born in 1464 in Genoa Italy.
👉 She was the daughter of Daughter of Domenico Colombo and Susanna Fontanarossa.
👉 She married Giacomo Bavarello.
👉 She died in 1516.
Christopher Columbus Wife:
👉 Filipa Moniz Perestrelo was the Portuguese noblewomen from Porto Santo Island in Media.
Christopher Columbus Sons:
History revealed that Christopher Columbus has two sons.
👉 Filipa Moniz Perestrelo gave birth to Diego Columbus.
👉 His mistress Beatriz Enríquez de Arana gave birth to Ferdinand Columbus.
👉 Diego Columbus (1479-1526) was a Portuguese explorer and navigator. His mother name was Filipa Moniz Perestrelo.
👉 He was the Successor of Christopher Columbus.
👉 He was the 2nd Admiral and Viceroy of Indies. He was also 4th governor of Indies.
👉 Ferdinand Columbus (1488-1539) was the second son of Christopher Columbus.
👉 His mother name was Beatriz Enriquez de Arana and Christopher Columbus never married her.
👉 He was Spanish Cosmographer and bibliographer.
Christopher Columbus Family:
Here is a complete list of Christopher Columbus family list, hope you will enjoy.
Christopher Columbus Family
|👉 1||Domenico Colombo||Father|
|👉 2||Susanna Fontanarossa||Mother|
|👉 3||Filipa Moniz Perestrelo||Wife|
|👉 4||Beatriz Enríquez de Arana||Mistress|
|👉 5||Diego Columbus||Son|
|👉 6||Ferdinand Columbus||Son|
|👉 7||Bartholomew Columbus||Brother|
|👉 8||Giovanni Pellegrino Columbus||Brother|
|👉 9||Giacomo Columbus||Brother|
|👉 10||Giovanni Antonio Columbus||Brother|
|👉 11||Bianchinetta Columbus||Sister|
|👉 12||Francisca Colón de Toledo y Pravia||Great grand Child|
|👉 13||Juana Colón de Toledo||Grand Daughter|
|👉 14||Isabel Colón de Toledo||Grand Daughter|
|👉 15||Diego Colón de Toledo|
(4th Admiral of the Indies)
|Great grand Son|
|👉 16||Cristóbal Colón de Toledo||Grand Son|
|👉 17||María Colón de Toledo||Grand Daughter|
|👉 18||Felipa Colón de Toledo|
(3rd duchess of Veragua)
|Great grand Daughter|
|👉 19||María Colón de Toledo y Guzmán||Greatt grant Child|
|👉 20||Luis Colón, 1st Duke of Veragua||Grand Son|
The journey of Four voyages:
The journey of discovering the new world has been started when he was just in teenage.
At the age 14, he started his maritime carrier as a messenger and worked his way up common sailor.
After that, he worked for six years as a common sailor in European oceans. A legend has emerged as he was 21 years old at this time.
Now Columbus tried his hands a pirate sea. He was an employee of René of Anjou.
The René of Anjou appointed the young man to capture the warships and Tunis Harbor in North Africa.
On the route the man with Columbus got timid .and his companion persuaded him to turn back to France for reinforcement.
The story turned when that night Columbus played a trick on his men by altering his ship compass so that they sailed south instead of north.
When sunrise, they were on their target warship, at that time Christopher Columbus Managed attack and succeed in his success.
Many Scholars conflict the account of his success the reason that Columbus was just 21 which seems far too young by given their command.
Tow year later the destination was “Greek Island” of “Chios” and “Aegean Sea”. He and the rest of the crew spent a year on Island.
Columbus was lucky; Columbus struck and sunk by a French warship.
It was the only stroke of fortune that ended up Christopher’s life diving up into the sea.
He managed to cling to a floating and used as a boy to get the Portuguese shore at “Lagos” some six miles away.
Luckily the people of “Lagos” took him and got him back to their home for treatment and good health.
At their Lisbon stay, he managed to join up with large and best colonies of “Genoa” which was the place of shipbuilder and merchants.
👉 While returning to “Lisbon” he learned the inner working of seafaring traits.
👉 This port city was the hub of seafaring and discoveries where stories what lay beyond were revealed and scheme of exploration expounded.
👉 During that time Christopher Columbus undertook the study of astronomy, geography, astronomical/celestial navigation.
👉 In 1478 he set off the three keys Atlantic Archipelagos.
👉 The island group visited was the “Azores” 800 miles west of Portugal, while the other two were “Madeira Islands archipelago”
👉 During these voyages, Columbus gained valuable information and experience on the open sea.
On his return to Lisbon, Christopher Columbus met and fell in love with twenty-five years old.
Her name was “Filipa Moniz Perestrelo” belong to noble birth and connection to the Portuguese court.
Her father had no dowry offer.
The newlyweds settled in the Town of “Porto Santo” on the Madeira Island where her father had previously been governor.
In 1480 a son was born his name was Diego.
Soon after giving birth though Filipa Moniz Perestrelo died.
The detail surrounding her was not accurate but most historians believed the cause was Tuberculosis.
Seeking for Asia:
In the age of thirty (30) Christopher Columbus has developed great deals of skills and got experiences as an ocean voyager.
He has traveled as far as Iceland to the North and garner to the west still he was fascinated that what the further routes can be discovered to expand the trade and Christianity.
Green Sea of Darkness:
Beyond the limit was “Green Sea of darkness”, there were many theories without evidence about the great sea of Darkness.
These things convinced him largely and he was ready to sail out to the west.
That was a novel idea and before implementation. He needed to gain some academic support for his belief and idea.
Although with his brother “Bartolomeo” he burned the midnight oil for months pouring over geographical maps, Astronomical books, and other related works.
When he found anything informative and supported his hypothesis he underlined it, writes it and scribed it into his notebook.
Columbus study and research led him to make three key assumptions upon which he funded firmly believe himself firstly.
(1) 👉 He believed that there is just only one ocean that is the Atlantic Ocean and belied it narrow.
(2) 👉 He thought strictly that earth is round and small and Asia was much closer to Europe than it ended up being.
(3) 👉 There was no landmass between Asia and Europe.
He gained a lot of support and information from Marco Polo and first-century cartographer Mariner of Tyre.
This convinced him too sailed out due west so that he can reach Asia in less than three hundred miles.
Royal Backing and Help:
Now with the research and scientific backing that he was needed now, it is the time to find out the backer for planning the voyage of discovery.
More than the financial support he was after a Royal backer.
Who would garner him the noble and prestige status that he would earn by such a perilous journey?
Even in his own words, he wanted that
In return for such honors, Columbus bestows the riches of Asia open sponsor sovereign.
King of Portugal Reject His Proposal:
👉 With the help of Marco Polo journal and having lived in Portugal for the past eight years it was just naturally the first request was made to that country’s king.
👉 But despite his persuasiveness, Columbus’s proposal was rejected.
👉 Kings viewed as an unproved sailor that wants to sail out to the west in searching of the new water route to India.
👉 He also demands on tenth income, that why his proposal was denied, because that the plan to reach the Orient by sailing west was nothing more than fool earned with a round rejection from his adopted country.
Help and Support from Spain:
Columbus set the sight on the king of Spain by knowing that they would be an adventurer.
He was 34 years of age penniless widowed arrived in the Spanish port, the town of Palos with five-year-old Diego.
His first goal to find out the food lodging and a place for Diego as his father Columbus made his approach to the king.
This monastery would be his base toward the round to the table of Spinach king.
Then he makes his way to Cordoba to seek an audience with King “Ferdinand and the queen “Isabella” of Castle.
He had a way for Monarch to return from Madrid.
Christopher Columbus Mistress:
👉 During this time he met a young woman named was “Beatriz Enríquez de Arana”.
👉 She became his mistress.
👉 She gave birth his second son “Ferdinand Columbus (1488- 1539).
Real Sponsors Of Christopher Columbus:
The audience before the king and the queen was generous.
Christopher Columbus and Isabella have made a strong bonding of the same age and they were at the same point by mentality.
Still, monarchs turned the idea over to an investigator Columbus have to wait five and a half years to wait for their final decision.
During this time the Christopher Columbus return to Lisbon before the king and attempt to reopen the negotiation with the king but all in vain.
In the end, the spinach commission rejected his proposal and plan, the main reason behind this the three years’ work and new technology that was not present at that time.
The commission believed that if ships managed to go to another side of the world and it would not be back.
However, the final decision was made by King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella.
The king was happy because he did not like personally Christopher Columbus but Queen Isabella took the pain and reassured him that in future he will be able to resubmit the proposal.
On January 2, 1492, The Moorish city of “Granada” fell to spinach.
They have conquered the last Muslim strong city.
They have collected a sudden huge amount of cash and they were able to sponsor and invest in this risky adventure.
Shortly thereafter the Royal Minister of the budget, who was kind and entrusted in a friendly way with Columbus.
He has requested to queen and king to show favor the Columbus plan and scheme.
Now Monarch capitulates and the Columbus who was then his way back to Cordoba on the back of mule was intercepted and rushed quickly to Royal Palace to receive the good news.
Why did Queen Isabella sponsor Christopher Columbus?
Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand have helped Christopher Columbus due to these reasons.
(1) 👉 Queen Isabella and the king Ferdinand financed Christopher Columbus because the Catholic has just regained the power and strength in Spain and they want to spreads Christianity in other parts of the world.
(2) 👉 They want to discover the new route in the Atlantic Oceans for the trade where they have completely hold.
(3) 👉 Queen Isabella has helped and sponsored the Columbus due to she thought there would be might a new route will be found towards Asia for trades.
Asia was attracting Spain at that time due to its fame of spice, gold and wealth of India.
(4) 👉 The queen supported Columbus because she thought if Columbus will be able to find out the new world then there will be a lot of possibilities to trade and to get back the gold and spice.
Christopher Columbus voyages:
Christopher Columbus First Voyage:
After waiting for ten years with passion finally it took Columbus just ten weeks together with the three ships some supplier and crew which he was needed.
Christopher Columbus Ships:
In Christopher Columbus first voyage Columbus used three ships Santa Maria, Pinta, and Nina.
(1) Santa María (the Holy Mary)
👉 La Santa María de la Inmaculada Concepción and in the Spanish language ( The Holy Mary of the Immaculate Conception), or La Santa María.
👉 It was the largest ship of the three other ships used by Christopher Columbus in his first voyage toward the new world.
👉Her master and owner were Juan de la Cosa.
👉 Santa María was built in Pontevedra, Galicia, in Spain’s north-west region by professional workers.
👉 Santa María was a medium-sized carrack about (58.5 ft.) 7.7 meter long on deck.
👉 According to Juan Escalante de Mendoza in 1575, Santa Maria was “very little larger than 100 ton” but it was big from the other two ships.
👉 Santa María has a single dick and three small masts.
👉 Santa María was consisting of several anchors, possibly six.
According to “Hale, Edward Everett” the crew did not consist of criminals.
Many of them were experienced seaman from the port of Palos in Andalusia and its gathering from the countryside, as like from the region of Galicia in the northwest.
The first voyage was funded by a syndicate of seven noble Genovese bankers resident in Seville.
is given below.
|1||Juan de la Cosa, Owner and Master Of Santa Maria|
|2||Pedro Alonso Niño, Pilot|
|3||Diego de Arana, Master-at-arms|
|4||Pedro de Gutierrez, Royal Steward|
|5||Rodrigo de Escobedo, Secretary of the fleet|
|6||Rodrigo Sanchez, Comptroller|
|7||Luis de Torres, Interpreter|
|8||Bartolome Garcia, Boatswain|
|10||Cristobal Caro, Goldsmith|
|11||Juan Sanchez, Physician|
|12||Antonio de Cuéllar, Carpenter|
|13||Diego Perez, Painter|
|16||Rodrigo de Jerez|
|19||Andres de Yruenes|
|21||Bartolome de Torres|
|22||James Wardropper (Lord of the Wardrobes)|
|24||Domingo de Lequeitio|
|27||Juan (Horacio Crassocius from La Rabida Friary)|
|28||Juan de Jerez|
|29||Juan de la Placa|
|30||Juan Martines de Acoque|
|31||Juan de Medina|
|32||Juan de Moguer|
|33||Juan Ruiz de la Pena|
|34||Marin de Urtubia|
|36||Pedro de Lepe|
|37||Pedro de Salcedo, Servant of Columbus and ship's boy|
|38||Rodrigo de Gallego|
|39||Pedro de Terreros, cabin boy|
Does Christopher Columbus’s Santa Maria wreck ‘found’ or not?
👉 In May 2014 the US underwater investigator has claimed that he has found the wreck of Santa Maria.
👉 Barry Clifford told that evidence “strongly suggests” the destructive Santa Maria is on Haiti’s north coast.
👉 He says that he has requested and working with Haitians government to preserve and protect this area for further investigation.
👉 Mr. Clifford had added to US broadcaster CNN that he found the “smoking gun” that was a cannon used in the 15th century designed.
(2) Pinta (the Painted)
👉 La Pinta in the Spanish language meaning “The Painted”.
👉 Pinta was the fastest ship from the other three ships which were used by Christopher Columbus in his first transatlantic voyage towards Asia instead of an unknowingly new world in 1492.
👉The new world was first sighted from the crew was “Rodrigo de Triana” aboard on La Pinta on 12 October
👉 His owner allowed the Martin Alonso Pinzon to take over the ship so that he can care and an eye on the ship.
👉 The origin of the ship is in doubt but it is claimed that it was built in 1441. It was rebuilt and refurbished for Christopher Columbus.
👉 La Pinta was smaller than Santa Maria with an estimated deck length of 17 meters (56ft and width were 5.36 meters(17.6 ft.)
👉 The crew size was just 26 men and La Pinta was under the controlled of Martin Alonso Pinzon.
The crew of the Pinta:
|1||Martin Alonso Pinzon, Captain|
|2||Francisco Martin Pinzon, Master|
|3||Cristobal Garcia Xalmiento, Pilot|
|4||Cristobal Quintero, Ship's Owner|
|5||Francisco Garcia Vallejo|
|6||Garcia Hernandez, Steward|
|10||Juan Rodriquez Bermejo|
|11||Pedro de Arcos|
|12||Alonso de Palos|
|16||Diego Martin Pinzon|
|22||Juan Verde de Triana|
|24||Maestre Diego, Surgeon|
|25||Sancho de Rama|
(3)Santa Clara (nicknamed the Niña: The Little Girl) and facts:
👉 The Niña was one of the three Spanish ships that were used by an Italian explorer Christopher Columbus.
👉 The owner was Juan Niño.
👉 Niña was medium-sized ship with 60 tones, around 50 feet (15 meters) of the length of the deck and have three masts.
👉 The Niña was captained and under controlled by Vicente Yáñez Pinzón.
The crew of the Niña:
|1||Vincente Yanez Pinzon, captain|
|2||Juan Nino, Owner and Master|
|4||Bartolome Roldan, Apprentice Pilot|
|5||Alonso de Morales, carpenter|
|6||Andres de Huelva|
|7||Bartolome Garcia, boatswain|
|9||Fernando de Triana|
|11||Juan Arias, cabin boy|
|14||Maestre Alonso, physician|
|15||Miguel de Soria, Servant|
|16||Pedro de Soria|
|20||Sancho Ruiz, pilot|
First Voyage of Christopher Columbus:
Christopher Columbus sailed out Palos de la Frontera on 3 August 1492, and the first stop for repairing at the Canary Islands on 12 August 1492, and continued westward.
On 14 February 1493, in the east of the Azores, a storm came across the way to capsize Niña, The crew performed special religious pilgrimages to the return of Spain.
Niña reached Lisbon, Portugal, on 4 March 1493, and reached Palos on 15 March 1493. In September 1493 she joined the second voyage too.
They are also called Santa Maria, Pinta, and Nina.
After gathering of the crew of 20 men he divided the crew into three ships.
The big ship Santa María was under the command and captained by Christopher Columbus.
The Pinta was under the supervision of Martín Alonso Pinzón, and the Niña was controlled by Vicente Yáñez Pinzón.
The beginning of the first voyage:
On August 3, 1492, Columbus sailed out from the city Palos Spain on the Tinto River.
Christopher was although overall in command of three ships.
The Niña was captained by Vicente Yañez Pinzón, the Pinta was captained by Martín Alonso Pinzón.
The Santa Maria obviously under the command of Christopher Columbus.
His crew probably came from nearest towns such as Lepe and Moguer.
They remained there four weeks for the calm down of wind.
Columbus sailed out from the island of Gomera on September 6, 1492.
After some days they enter into the area that was known as “Sargasso Sea “.
All the surface water was covered with gulfweeds a thick greenish plant that was floated on the surface of the water.
The Columbus thought that the voyage will take four weeks but no sight land was sighted from the expected deadline. The wind died down at the same time.
After the three weeks, the crew was in the middle of the ocean.
The crew was timid and there was no sign of land and the weeks passed with no indicators.
The crew became agitated on ships and near to mutiny.
The things coming boiling point but Columbus here make wise decision and commitment with the crew that if ships will not be landed on the land he promised that they will come back.
First Stop (New World discovered) San Salvador:
After two days most waited words came at 2:00 a: m. but here is the twist of the story
Christopher Columbus was a liar:
On October 12, the land was sighted by “Rodrigo de Triana”, a sailor aboard the Pinta.
But Columbus claimed that he had sawed the first some sort of light or arura to get the fame, integrity, king’s sympathy, and all the reward to find out the new route and world.
He also promised with Rodrigo de Triana to reward him but after that, it will not come.
At the morning Columbus was the first who landed in place and called it San Salvador present-day the Bahamas, and that place called Guanahani by native s people.
It is believed that Columbus first stop was on the San Salvador, Samana Cay or Grand Turk Islands.
At Guanahani, Columbus met the native people and trade with them they belong to the Lucayan tribe.
Some historian spotted that here Columbus kidnapped some natives so they can guide him before leaving this place two days later.
He stopped at three other islands in the Bahamas over the next two weeks, which he named
(1) 👉 Santa Maria de la Concepción
(2) 👉 Fernandina
(3) 👉 Isabela
Second Stop: Cuba
👉 He reached Cuba at 28 October on the Bariay Bay landfall.
👉 He thought he has found China.
👉 He sent two men for the investigation they were
(1)Rodrigo de Jerez
(2)Luis de Torres.
👉 They were failed to find out the China Empire.
👉 They have found a native Taíno village where they observed the smoking of Tobacco and it was their habit and they have picked up there.
👉 Columbus has spent fruitless weeks here to find the gold and chines civilization but failed to do so.
👉 Columbus reached Cayo Cruz on October 31.
At that time the Captain of Pinta, Martín Alonso Pinzón has left the two other ships without the permission of Christopher Columbus and sailed out in other Islands in the searching of gold.
Third stop: Hispaniola
👉 Christopher Columbus reached Hispaniola the native called it Haiti, on December 5.
👉 Columbus called it La Española, which was changed and now called it Hispaniola.
👉 On the Christmas Eve, the Santa María grounded a reef, abandoned and the next day sank.
👉 Columbus used the remaining parts of the ships and built the small fort and settlement and he named La Navidad.
👉 He left the other thirty-nine men at this settlement and sailed out from La Navidad on January 2, 1493.
👉 The Pinta rejoined him on January 6.
👉 He was not so much anger at Pinzón because he has another ship too to return to Spain.
👉 On January 6 thee both ships reunited and departed from Samana Bay.
Return to Spain:
And finally, Christopher Columbus comes back to Palos on March 15, 1493.
Historical Impact of Columbus’ First Voyage:
👉 In retrospect that the first voyage of Christopher Columbus that is regarded as a milestone in the history of Europe and America was a bad failure at that time.
👉 Christopher Columbus was failed to bring gold, spice new route to Asia and China.
👉 He just brings some trinkets and few bedraggled natives from Hispaniola.
👉 Columbus’s first voyage opens the way for tradition.
👉 The new crops have introduced into Europe which changes the feeding habits of European.
👉 On the discovery of the new world, the colonization system was developed in the USA.
👉 The European destroyed the native societies or pushed them into their native lands and did not mix with them.
Columbus’s first voyage effect on Africa:
👉 Christopher Columbus’s first voyage has the negative effect on Africa because for the built of infrastructure and plantation of America European needed the labor and that was the solution to move into Africa and took the millions of people from Africa to America (New world) to work as a slave.
👉 Europe benefitted many things and Spain too based on these benefits.
👉 The European brought disease into the new world and colonization system and take benefits returned to Europe.
Who discovered America?
The straightforward answer to this question is Christopher Columbus.
Most of us believed that Christopher Columbus discovered America. is it not?
👉 As for as new evidence came into light, our approaches to understanding and analyzing the history has been changed.
👉 If we dig deeper and deeper into history.
We will find that America was not first discovered by Christopher Columbus.
👉 The reality is that Christopher Columbus was not a first explorer but the last one who discovered New World America.
👉 He established a settlement.
👉 Most historians believed that America has been visited by Muslims and seafaring Chines explorer.
Here is the video Christopher Columbus Biography.
Second Voyage of Christopher Columbus:
👉 In first Columbus’s voyage, he was not as successful as many drawings before the voyage.
👉 But Columbus has assured that there is another Islands and the abundant amount of gold can be found.
👉 The native slave as much as they can from the point Hispaniola where they have first stopped.
👉 Queen Isabella and King agreed to help him for the second voyage.
👉 The second voyage was prepared on large-scale for colonization and exploring new continent and gold for Spain.
👉 The main object of the 2nd voyage is to spreads Christianity.
👉 The second Voyage was consist of 17 ships and 1200 men.
👉 The fleet sailed out on October 13th, 1493.
👉 The journey was fine and they safely reached first sighting land on November 3rd.
👉 The European has also loaded their domesticated animals like pigs, horse, and cattle.
👉 Columbus has thought they will be make settled the European people there.
👉 Christianity will be spread in the new world.
👉 They will be able to explore new gold and China or Asia route for trading.
👉 They reached out the first island which he named Dominica by Columbus.
👉 Columbus and some of the companion has discovered a new and small group of Islands which are given below
👉 And he also visited Puerto Rico and sailed out to Hispaniola.
During his second voyage, Christopher Columbus noticed that Indigenous Haitians Played with the rubber ball.
Hispaniola and the Fate of La Navidad:
In his first voyage, one of his ships was destroyed and he made a little settlement and called him La Navidad.
He forced to his 39 men lo live here and he returns to Spain.
When he came back at La Navidad all the men were killed by the native tribe.
He asked native chief Guacanagarí and he blamed on Caonabo, a rival chief.
But the main reason was that which made some tribe anger and they killed all the European men.
Then he attacked Caonabo tribe and killed them and some of them made slaved.
Columbus gave them control of settlement to his brother and move on Cuba and Jamaica for further exploration and findings the more new islands and gold.
He lands on Cuba at 30 April and sailed out Jamaica on 5 May.
He has failed to find out the gold and new Islands toward Asia and China.
He returned to the Isabella on August 20, 1494.
Columbus as bad governor:
Christopher Columbus was a good explorer, sailor, and captain but he was not a good administrator.
The native people and colonies that survived hate Columbus and his brother.
On returning Hispaniola with the founding of no gold Columbus embarked massive salve drive as 1500men, women and children were captured and 500 best specimens choose to take them in Spain.
While 200 of them were died on the way and left of them sold as action.
Christopher Columbus was seeking for the gold, in Haiti, he ordered every person whos was an age of 14 or over was to collect the minimum quota of gold every three months.
The people who succeeded to collect the gold have rewarded a copper neckless to wear and those people who were without neckless their hand cut down.
In October 1495, the morale inspector came, investigate and gather the evidence and these all evidence was against Columbus.
There was no choice for Columbus expects to return before Queen Isabella and King.
Returning from 2nd voyage:
👉 Setting sail the Nina forty-five years old Columbus return to Portugal on June 11th, 1496.
👉 He clothed himself in a friars robe as a sign of penitence and set out meet the sovereigns that it has happened 500 miles away from him.
👉 On the meeting with Queen and king, he immediately assured the Queen and king that there is still new island from the south part of Bahamas and plenty of gold that can change the fate of Spain and make it rich and powerful empire in the world.
👉 Unfortunately, the bad reports against Columbus have not convinced queen ad King.
👉 They promised that they will help him in the future.
👉 Columbus waits two years for the third voyage when the queen and king sponsored and helped Columbus for the third voyage.
Starting of Americans native slave trade:
👉 Columbus promised with Queen and King to bring back the abundant amount of gold and got sponsored and 👉 funded for his 2nd voyage.
👉 He has failed to bring back gold, so he makes a hundred of native indigenous people slave to overcome his failure.
👉 Queen Isabella was literally against it but the native indigenous people slave trade was started.
Historical importance and effect of the second Voyage:
Columbus’s second voyage was remarkable in history because it was the starting of colonization.
Spain has made its permanent foothold to spreads out its empire to the new world.
Queen Isabella even was against the native slave trade but it was the starting of Colonization and devastating of Indigenous people.
The seventy percent 70-80% population was decreased between 1492 and the mid of the 17th century.
The reasons were the arrival of disease from Europe and enslavement.
This first colonist has a greater impact on world history for in coming decades.
Christopher Columbus’s third voyage:
Christopher Columbus sailed out from Spain May of 1498 with six ships.
This time the voyage did not consist of the soldier but a sailor, of thirty women, fifty formers, twenty mechanics, ten gardeners, and thirty sailors.
Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand sponsored the Christopher Columbus third voyage for the resupplying the colonist and find out the new route for trade.
The fleets split into two groups:
On the third voyage, the fleets were split into two groups with three ships.
The first group went to Hispaniola,
For resupply and provide the needed things to colonies.
While three others were moved to the south toward Indies in search of any land. During this voyage, Christopher Columbus was suffered terrible pain from gout and fever.
The third voyage was started immediately and it was slow too.
Columbus’s fleet hit the doldrums and they have spent several weeks in the Oceans with no winds or a little bit.
The wind was started and Columbus changed the direction to the north because the ship was with little water supply.
On July 31, Columbus landed on the land and he named it as Trinidad.
They have restocked, repaired at this place and moved further in exploring the new land.
Columbus has gone from the settlement and it was in bad condition.
Colonists were not happy and they were not supplied at t time.
He found the place in the state of resistance.
Many men have died mainly from starvation and rest of them were disgusted at the harsh behavior under the nominal governor Bartholomew Columbus.
He was acting governor when Columbus was on the way.
With defeating the rebellion his only desire was a return to Spain.
During his brief tenure from 4192 to 1496, he was not a good governor.
Francisco de Bobadilla:
Responding to the rumors and complaints against Christopher Columbus and his brother during their rulership on the Hispaniola the crown of Spain sent the Francisco de Bobadilla to the Hispaniola for investigation and to gather the information of colonies on Indies.
Francisco de Bobadilla was a nobleman and Spain crown has given him so much power.
The pieces of evidence were against Columbus.
In 2005 documents were found in Spain archives that contain first-hand accounts of Columbus and his brother abuses.
Bobadilla reached Spain in August 1500 with some native slave and 500 men, the king freed the slave.
The Bobadilla told to the king that condition was bad and hilarious as he heard.
Columbus and his brother were freed after spending the few weeks in jail.
Christopher Columbus’s third voyage effect and importance:
👉 On his first voyage, Christopher Columbus was granted a series of reward and titled.
👉 He was appointed as governor-general and viceroy of newly found land and areas.
👉 He was granted the title of Admiral of oceans which would pass to his heirs.
👉 Christopher Columbus second voyage was not successful.
👉 He has failed to bring out the gold and Asia route before the king and his third route was just a fool due to his failure in administration and finding the new route and gold.
👉 After all, he was freed from the jail and all the property, reward and title restored.
👉 His heirs reached out to the court to gain their right according to the contract that was signed between Queen, king and Christopher Columbus
👉 Christopher Columbus has also found out new islands.
👉 But Amerigo Vespucci believed that Columbus has just found those Areas or lands which have been discovered before.
👉 The faulty, easiness and failure of Columbus and his family as an administrator create a great space between Hispaniola colonies and King so overcome on this difficulty the King and Queen Isabella has appointed Nicolás de Ovando as a governor.
👉 He was a great administrator and nobleman.
👉 His cruelty made it possible to overcome and speeds the Spain Empire in the Indies.
Results of three voyages:
👉 Results of three voyages were remarkable and interesting by findings the new world, new people, new culture.
👉 When Columbus came back from his first voyage, he was warmly welcomed by Spain and sent back to Hispaniola for making and growing of Spain Empire and colonies.
👉 But on his third voyage, it was failed according to pre-planned vision.
👉 Columbus could not found gold and the new route for trade and his colonist s were against and he was arrested and sent back to Spain in Jail.
Christopher Columbus’s Fourth Voyage:
On May 11, 5102, Christopher Columbus went out for his fourth and final voyage.
He aimed to find out the untouched areas of the Caribbean.
He explores the parts of central South America.
But his ships were destroyed due to termite and weather condition.
They spend a year in Jamaica to explore the new route, in late 1405 they came back to Spain.
With the help of Royal Columbus was ready with his four ships for the fourth and final voyage the ships were,
👉 Santiago de Palos
His brothers Diego and Bartholomew and his son Fernando were also with him during this trip.
Now they believed, they will be able to find the route and abundant amount of gold that will help Spain to spreads Christianity and its Empire.
Columbus reached the Hispaniola.
The people of settler did not welcome him because they still remembered the false administration and behavior of Columbus.
They reached here after the visits of Martinique and Puerto Rico.
He requested Viceroy Nicolás de Ovando to exchange one of his ships (the Santiago de Palos).
Ovando behavior with Columbus was not fine and ordered him to anchors his ships some nearby estuary and as soon as possible sailed out to Spain.
Bad Luck The Hurricane:
Ovando ignored the Columbus and send the fleets of 28 ships to Spain, due to hurricane 24 ships were sunk out of 28, three was returned and yes only one was moved forwards to Spain and that was under the command of Columbus.
Reached Central America:
When the Hurricane was stopped they move forward with tiredness.
They have reached the land of Central America and where the anchored and refreshed repair their ships and took supplies.
Central America to Jamaica:
Columbus continuing the exploring along the coastal line of now days called Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama.
During their stay they have met many native people, they experienced the culture of their tradition, building material, design, and they have trade with them.
They face a Hurricane and many storms.
In the earliest of 1503, their ships were failed due to weather and termites destruction.
Their ships could go no further for the journey.
One year in Jamaica:
They stayed in Jamaica for a year with peace and friendly behavior with natives.
They have provided the food to Columbus and their companion.
Even Ovando neither helped him nor provide ships or resources.
Finally, two ships arrived at June 1504t pick them.
Importance and effect of Columbus’s fourth voyage:
When Columbus returned to Spain his beloved Queen Isabella was dying.
It was her support that he would be able to return to Spain back.
His final voyage was remarkable because many of his men later discovered and explored new Island on.
Columbus son Fernando wrote a biography of his father.
During this fourth voyage, European was realized and introduced with Mayan Civilization and Mayan traders.
Columbus was convinced that he has discovered Asia.
Most of European believed that America was unknown to them and they called it the new world.
Christopher Columbus Voyages Route Map:
Christopher Columbus was an amazing man who has both qualities as a monster as well as a hero.
Christopher Columbus Death:
When he has completed his great four transatlantic voyages, and return to Spain in 1504, Columbus was fifty-three years old with bad health, inflammation in eyes even sometimes he was not able to read and write.
When Christopher Columbus died?
Columbus died in Valladolid, Spain on May 20, 1506, after battling “Reactive Arthritis”
How old was Christopher Columbus when he died?
When Christopher died his age was 54 and some historian agreed on 55 years old.
How did Christopher Columbus die?
There is lots of opinion about Columbus’s death which are mention in this research.
According to his son Ferdinand, Columbus’s death reason was gout and now a day’s modern scientist and researcher identified that was Reiter’s syndrome.
Gerald Weissmann research also supported the above statement.
Another researcher “Antonio Rodriguez Cuartero” from the Department of Internal Medicine of the University of Granada, his research and study published in February 2007
He acclaimed that Columbus’s death reason was Congestive heart failure.
Cuartero worked on Columbus’s diary and writing of his son and able, to sum up, the clinical history of the Italian explorer.
According to him”
According to Frank C. Arnett M.D., a rheumatologist and working in the University of Texas, statement that he gave in 2010 “that Columbus experienced several months of illness before going to completely bedridden person.
Where Are the Remains of Christopher Columbus?
Columbus died in May of 1506 and first buried in Valladolid.
Columbus was a powerful figure and he desired to be buried in the New World.
But in 1506, there was no impressive Church to house such a lofty remain.
In 1509, his remains were moved temporarily at Cartuja which is an Island in the river near Seville.
To respect his wish his son Diego traveled to the Dominican Republicans to construct a church that can hold his father remains in respect of his father final wish.
But unfortunately, Diego died in 1526 before the dream comes out into reality, he also buried with his father in Seville.
Both father and son remained here for 16 years.
When the church of Santa Maria complete then in the Dominican Republic Diego’s widow has requested and organized to put both bodies moved here.
In 1542 remains were both moved again into Colonial Santo Domingo where Columbus’s brother Bartholomew died here and buried.
Over time, Santo Domingo has lost its importance for the Spanish Empire and Spain lost control of Domingo republic.
Spain hand over Hispaniola and the Domingo Republic to France.
Columbus remains were important and sent to Havana Cuba.
But in 1898, Spain went to war with the United State of America and remains sent back to Spain to prevent it from Americans.
A fascinating finding:
Unfortunately, in Domingo republic, nearly a century late, the worker in Santo Domingo cathedral found a leaden box inscribed the words “Illustrious and distinguished male, don Cristobal Colon”.
The box contains a set of human remains and everyone assumed that these remains belong to great explore Columbus.
Dominican acclaimed that Spanish has drag wrong set of bones out in 1795.
Dominicans argument about remains:
The Dominican Republic shows the sign of advanced arthritis and alignment of his elder brother that he showed, he was suffered.
The description on the box, of course, no one can say it as false.
Maybe it can also happen some Dominicans passed the other bones instead of Columbus in 1795.
The Spanish argument about remains:
Spanish has two solid reason and arguments that they have original remains.
First of all the DNA contained in the bones in Seville was extremely matched with Columbus’s brother Diego because he was also buried there.
The experts who have done this DNA experiments believed these remains belong to Columbus.
The Dominican Republican has refused to DNA test for the identification of remains.
Another solid argument was the leaden box was not discovered in 1877 and all the travel history well documented when remains sent back into Spain.
The controversy behind Columbus remains:
First of all, all the debate and fact revealed above about remains has no so much importance.
Christopher Columbus died 500 years ago then whom one cares?
But the reality about remains is so much confusion.
Christopher was a great sailor and explores and discovered a new world irrespective of the blame and reality of Columbus cruelty on natives.
Both cities acclaimed that they have Columbus remains.
Why both cities acclaimed?
Because of the tourism factor for both countries.
The tourist wants to go to the tomb of Christopher Columbus and wish to take a picture before the tomb.
The Dominican republicans depend heavily on tourism, as a small nation.
They refused to DNA authentication.
So, where is Columbus buried?
Both cities acclaim that they have Columbus remains and built an outstanding monument to host his remains.
So which one is real?
Spain has built a massive castle to house remains.
While Dominicans refused to acknowledge the DNA test as like Spanish has done and do not allow someone to do this until they do.
In 1931 a designing competition was held and Scottish artist won this competition by designing a 688 long cruciform memorial building model that today is known as “Faro a Colon”. Lighthouse for Columbus.
Many people think that Columbus is in both places.
In 1795, his remains were nothing but like a powder.
so it would happen that half of his remains sent to Cuba and other half hide in Santo Domingo cathedral.
Perhaps the most favorable ending of the man who has brought this new world.
Christopher Columbus timeline:
1451 👉 Christopher Columbus was born in Genoa.
1465 👉 Christopher Columbus was a teenager when he has started his first journey as a sailor.
14476 👉 Christopher Columbus work as a sailor under the René of Anjou.
1478 👉 Christopher Columbus searched and explored tow islands Madeira Islands archipelago and the Azores.
1479 👉 Christopher Columbus married Filipa Moniz Perestrelo.
1480 👉 Christopher Columbus first son Diego was born.
1484 👉 Christopher Columbus wanted to make a new western route to find out Asia. He asked for help from England, France, and Portugal but his project was rejected.
1485 👉 Christopher Columbus moved to Spain for financial help to find out the best route.
1491 👉 Christopher Columbus asked for help from Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand of Spain.
3 August 1492 👉 Columbus sailed out from the city Palos Spain with three ships; the Pinta’ the Nina’ and the Santa Maria.
October 1492 👉 On October 12, 1492, Columbus and his crew made his first landfall. They had reached the American continent.
March 15, 1493, 👉 Christopher Columbus finally returned to Palos Spain.
October 13th, 1493 👉 His second voyage started to discover more gold and islands.
1496 👉 He returned to Spain before Queen Isabella and King to answer the allegations which put on Columbus.
1498 👉 He started his third voyage but he was failed. His colony was messed and he was arrested with his brother for their crime.
May 11, 1502, 👉 He sailed out for his final and fourth voyage.
1506 👉 Christopher Columbus died on May 20, 1506.
Some suggested Readings :
- Herring, Hubert. A History of Latin America From the Beginnings to the Present. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1962
- Thomas, Hugh. Rivers of Gold: The Rise of the Spanish Empire, from Columbus to Magellan. New York: Random House, 2005.
- Irving, Washington. The Life and Voyages of Christopher Columbus. Belford Company Publishers, New York. 1836.
- Taviani, Emilio Paolo. Christopher Columbus, The Grand Design. Orbis Publishing Ltd., London, 1985.
- Barreto, Mascarenhas. The Portuguese Columbus: Secret Agent of King John II. (Translated from Portuguese by Reginald Brown), St. Martin’s Press, New York, 1992.
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